Job Hazard Analysis
Safety isn't just something that you think about once a month at the mandatory HQ meeting. What is a JHA, why is it important and how often should it be done?
Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is a way to help workers focus on accident prevention by writing down the steps, possible hazards, and controls for any specific job. A job hazard analysis can help workers and their supervisors find hazards before they turn into accidents.
When incidents occur, one of the first questions that will be asked, or should be asked, by the manager, the incident investigator, the OSHA representative (or whoever is asking questions...) is Can I see the JHA? By using this as a starting point for any incident investigation, it can be known if the workers were aware of the specific hazard, had planned how to prevent incidents from occurring on the job site, or if the crew even knew what a job hazard analysis is and why it's important.
Job Hazard Analysis is sometimes called by different names including:
Pre-Task Hazard Analysis
Job Task Analysis
Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
Safety Task Analysis
A job hazard analysis is an exercise in detective work. The goal is to discover the following:
What can go wrong?
How can injuries happen?
What would cause an accident to happen?
How likely is it that the hazard will occur?
A specific work task can be separated into a series of simple steps. For each step hazards should be identified.
As steps required to complete a job or task are identified it is important to think about the types of hazards. Consider these common types of hazards and be sure they are included in the JHA:
Struck Against or Struck By
Contact With or Contact By
Caught In, Caught On, or Caught Between
Fall to Same Level or Fall to Below
Overexertion or Exposure
More examples of tasks or hazards that lead to accidents include:
Working at heights
Exposed moving machinery parts
Fires or explosions
Use of heavy equipment
Working with powder actuated tools
For each hazard written it is important to take the next step and write down a way to reduce, eliminate, or control the hazard. Consider these ideas as a few examples of safety controls:
Are safety handles and guards for tools and equipment available?
Can you move the work to ground level or prepare on the ground and lift it to a safe area?
Are the right tools, materials and equipment being used?
Is there a lift, or scaffold available instead of ladders?
Are electrical or other power sources able to be switched off?
Remember these important tips when completing a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA):
Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is a way to help workers focus on accident prevention.
Job Hazard Analysis is sometimes called by different names and many companies have their own forms and processes - the basic idea is to find hazards and prevent injuries.
Workers and supervisors are the best sources for identifying hazards in the work they perform.
For each step in a task the hazards should be identified, written down or checked off.
Every hazard discovered has to have a safety control or accident prevention method written down.
JHAs are often done at the start of a new job, and may be required daily.
A few minutes used to write a good JHA can save hours or days lost to an injury.
Weeklysafety.com has hundreds of safety meeting topics, including a comprehensive safety meeting kit on JHAs. Included in our safety meeting kit is a JHA template any company can use. To get access to everything Weeklysafety.com has to offer including a JHA form, a customizable safety manual, and hundreds of safety topics at your fingertips for a super-low monthly subscription, visit Weeklysafety.com.